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MAKING STOCK AND BROTH

[Beef] [Chicken] [Fish] [Vegetable] [Turkey} [Veal]

Making a good stock or broth, whether beef, chicken, veal, fish, or vegetable may seem like a big job better left to someone else (like that French chef in your favorite restaurant)----but not so! It's really easy if your have all the ingredients. Oh yes, stock is not the same as broth---well, not quite. Stock is a little heavier, a little more concentrated, with LOTS more flavor (and it's my favorite).

Furthermore, there are two kinds of stock----Brown Stock made with bones with a little meat on them and vegetables that have been first browned before tossing in the stockpot, and Clear Stock also made with bones and vegetables that have been tossed into the stockpot raw. Brown stock is terrific for most soups, stews and gravies while clear stock can be used for just about anything. I personally prefer the brown stock and leave the clear stock to Swanson or College Inn canned stuff, unless of course my recipe specifically requires a really clear broth (i.e., Egg Drop Soup). By all means, use aromatic vegetables such as onions, carrots, celery, garlic, etc.; and, left unpeeled, they impart the most flavor.

One thing to remember when you are making any kind of stock (or broth) is---even though the recipe says to "bring to a boil", do not bring it to a rolling boil since boiling has a tendancy to make the end result very cloudy. Watch the pot and when the liquid just begins to come up in medium-sized bubbles, reduce the heat immediately. If you want to make Asian-style soups, "c-l-e-a-r" is the key word!

Regardless of what kind or flavor of stock or broth you are going to make that includes meat or poultry, figure on about 6-8 hours cooking time total; but that doesn't mean you have to hover over it all that time. Most of the cooking time is spent doing other things while the stockpot sits on the back burner simmering all day---so start in the morning, and then go do chores.

QUESTIONS? Try me----e-mail me at shaboom@shentel.net!

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Copyright 2005 Carol Stevens, Shaboom's Kitchen, All Rights Reserved

BASIC BEEF STOCK
Yields about 1/2 gallon
5 pounds beef soup bones
1 large onion -- coarsely chopped
2 large carrots -- coarsely chopped
2 stalks celery -- coarsely chopped
12 cups cold water

Preheat oven to 425 degrees. Place the bones without any seasoning into a large roasting pan in a single layer. Roast uncovered 1 hour.

Scatter the chopped vegetables over the bones; roast 30 minutes longer.

Transfer bones and vegetables to a large 6-quart stock pot. Place the pan on top of the stove over medium heat; add about 1 cup of the water and deglaze the pan, scraping up all the browned bits from the bottom of the pan. Add this mixture to the stock pot; pour remaining water over all. Partially cover the pot and bring slowly to a simmer. Simmer 4-6 hours or until stock has a full flavor.

Use a perforated scoop, spider, or long tongs to remove and discard bones and vegetables. Strain stock into a large bowl. Cover bowl tightly and refrigerate about 24 hours or until fat has risen to the top and solidified.

Using a spatula or large spoon, remove fat from surface of the stock. Transfer into 1-pint or 1-quart tightly sealed containers. Refrigerate up to 3 days or freeze up to 3 months.

RICH BEEF STOCK WITH RED WINE
Yields about 1/2 gallon
5 pounds medium-sized beef bones
1 can tomato paste (6 oz.)
1 large onion -- coarsely chopped
2 stalks celery -- coarsely chopped
2 large carrots -- coarsely chopped
2 cups claret wine
20 black peppercorns (about 1 heaping TBS.)
4 cloves garlic -- peeled
4 bay leaves
1 teaspoon dried thyme leaves
teaspoon kosher salt
12 cups cold water

Preheat oven to 425 degrees. Place bones without any seasoning in a roasting pan large enough to hold the bones in a single layer and roast 1 hour.

Remove the pan from the oven and brush the bones with tomato paste. Scattery the chopped vegetables over the bones without seasoning; return to the oven and roast 30 minutes longer.

Transfer bones and vegetables to a large kettle (at least 6-quart). Pplace roasting pan on the stove over medium heat (this only takes a few seconds to come to a boil); carefully pour in the wine and deglaze the pan, scraping the bottom of the pan for browned particles. Put this mixture into the stock pot; add peppercorns, garlic, bay leaves, thyme and salt. Pour water over all; stir well and and bring to a simmer (do not boil). Reduce heat to low, partially cover and simmer 4-5 hours, stirring occasionally.

Remove from heat and begin to cool slightly. Using a perforated scoop (called a spider) or long tongs, carefully remove and discard the bones. Strain stock into a large bowl and discard the solids; let stock cool about 1 hour. Cover the bowl tightly and refrigerate overnight to allow the fat to rise to the top.

Remove the bowl from the refrigerator; using a large spatula or spoon, carefully skim off the solid fat from the surface.

NOTES:
1.) Use a heat diffuser if needed to prevent ingredients from sticking to the bottom.
2.) Keep refrigerated until ready to use, or it can be stored in 1-pint sealable containers in the freezer.
3.) Veal or pork stock may be prepared the same way, with the same ingredients except substituting veal bones for veal stock or pork bones (not ham bones) for pork stock.

CHICKEN STOCK
1 5-7 pound stewing chicken, cleaned, giblets removed -- trussed
1 large onion, stuck with 3 whole cloves
2 carrots
1 large whole garlic bulb
1 bouquet garni of parsley and fresh herbs
4 quarts water
1 tablespoon kosher salt

Place chicken breast side up in the bottom of a large kettle. Place the vegetables and bouquet garni around the chicken. Add water to cover (more than 4 quarts if needed). Bring slowly almost to a boil, skimming scum from the surface until none remains. Add salt; partially cover and simmer over very low heat 2-3 hours, depending on the age of the chicken (use a heat diffuser to keep ingredients from sticking to the bottom of the kettle).

Remove the chicken carefully from the pot and place on a platter. Strain stock and refrigerate until grease has congealed on the top. Skim grease from the top. Keep stock refrigerated until ready to use. Broth may be stored in 1-pint sealable containers in the freezer.

FISH STOCK
2 pounds Fish heads, bones and trimmings, rinsed -- broken in pieces
1 Onion -- sliced
1 Carrot -- sliced
1 Leek, washed -- sliced
1 rib Celery -- sliced
1 Bouquet Garni of parsley, tarragon and bay leaf
2 quarts Water
2 teaspoons Kosher salt

Place all ingredients into a large stock pot; bring almost to a boil, skimming scum from surface. Partially cover and simmer 30 minutes. Strain broth and refrigerate. Broth may be stored in 1-pint sealable containers in the freezer.

VEGETABLE STOCK
2 Leeks, washed -- thinly sliced
2 ribs Celery with leaves -- chopped
2 Onions -- thinly sliced
4 Carrots -- chopped
2 Cabbage leaves -- cut in strips
1 head Lettuce -- cut in strips
2 sprigs Parsley
1 tablespoon Thyme
1 Bay leaf
1 1/2 quarts Water

Place all ingredients into a large stock pot; bring almost to a boil, skimming scum from the surface. Partially cover and simmer 45 minutes. Strain broth. Broth may be stored in 1-pint sealable containers in the freezer.

TURKEY STOCK USING THE LEFTOVER CARCASS
1 leftover sturkey carcass
3 carrots -- cut in chunks
3 stalks celery -- cut in chunks
1 large onion -- cut in chunks
2 cloves garlic -- smashed
6 whole black peppercorns
2 whole cloves
Water to cover

Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Place turkey carcass or pieces, celery, onion and garlic in a large roasting pan and roast until browned, about 1-1/2 hours. Remove from the oven and transfer pan contents to a large stock pot. Add peppercorns, cloves and water. Bring just barely to a simmer, and simmer gently uncovered on the stovetop for about 1 hour, allowing stock to reduce by about one-half. Strain stock and refrigerate until chilled. Skim congealed fat from the surface. Freeze until needed. Yields about 4 cups.

VEAL STOCK
This stock is used so much in restaurant kitchens and there's no reason why you can't do the same. It's the base for that luscious "demi glace", which is made by reducing and concentrating the flavors.

6 pounds meaty Veal Bones
2 Onions, unpeeled -- halved
1 Carrot
1 rib Celery
3 tablespoons Tomato Paste
Several Parsley Stems
2 sprigs fresh Thyme, or 1/4 teaspoon ground
1/2 Bay leaf

Preheat oven to 400 degrees. Remove all visible fat from bones and place in shallow baking pan. Roast until very brown but not burned, about 45 minutes. Add vegetables to the baking pan during the last hour. Place meat and vegetables into a large stock pot. Add the tomato paste to the baking pan; heat over high heat on the top of the stove, blending with pan juices; pour all into the stock pot. Rinse the baking pan with water; pour into the stock pot. Add enough water to cover ingredients by 1 inch. Make parsley, thyme and bay leaf into a bouquet garni and add to the pot.

Bring almost to a boil, skimming scum from surface. Lower heat to a bare simmer; simmer uncovered 6-10 hours (use a heat diffuser to prevent ingredients from sticking to the bottom of the pot).

Strain broth; refrigerate until grease has congealed on the top. Skim grease from the top. Keep refrigerated until ready to use. Stock may be stored in sealable 1-pint containers in the freezer.